Principles of Power

Table of Contents


Chapter 1: The Power Imperative
Intent
Acoustics
Loudspeakers

Chapter 2: Vacuum Tubes
Early History
Vacuum Tube Diodes
Vacuum Triodes
Tetrodes
Pentodes
      Beam Power Pentodes
Multi-Element Tube Standards
Multiple Tubes

Chapter 3: Power Supplies
AC Power
Power Transformers
Rectifiers
      Half-Wave Rectifiers
      Full-Wave Rectifiers
Power Supply Filtering
      Capacitive Filters
      Choke Filters
Power Supply Energy Storage
      Capacitor Care and Safety
Bias Supplies
Filament Supplies
      Turn-On Surge Protection
Screen Supplies
      High-Voltage Regulators
Grounds
      Ground-Busses, Stars and Planes
Fans
Stand-By Switches
      Cathode Switching
      Screen Switching

Chapter 4: Power Amp Essentials
Voltage Amplification
      Cathode Followers
Grounded-Grid Amplifier
Phase Splitters
      Transformer-Coupled Splitter
      Vacuum Phase-Inverters
      Concertina Splitter
      See-Saw Inverter
      Schmitt Splitter
      Differential Splitter
      Schmitt Splitter
      Differential Splitter
Driver Stages
      Differential Driver
      Cathode Drivers
      Transformer Drive
Output Stages
      Single-Ended Outputs
      Push-Pull Outputs
      Ultralinear and Unity-Coupled Outputs
Bias Networks
      Cathode-Bias: Single-Ended
      Cathode-Bias: Push-Pull
      Fixed-Bias: Single-Ended
      Fixed-Bias: Push-Pull
Operating Classes
      Class-A
      Class-AB
      Class-B
Feedback
      Open-Loop vs. Closed-Loop Performance
Noise: What It Is and Where It Comes From
       Noise in Tubes

 

 

Chapter 5: Design Pool
Dissipation by Design
      Circuit Influence
      Tube Influence
Bias Adjustment Procedure
Single-Ended Design Procedure
Limiting Class-A Push-Pull Design Procedure
Class-A2 Design Procedure
Class-AB Design Procedure
Class-B Design Procedure
Transformer-Based Design Procedure
      SE Transformers
      Push-Pull Transformers
      Interstage Transformers
Custom Transformer Specification
      Output Transformers
      Power Transformers
      Transformer Shapes
      Transformer Orientation
Design Examples
      15 Watt Hammond 125E
      25 Watt Hammond 1627SE
      25 Watt Hammond 1628SE
      25 Watt Hammond 1640SE
      25 Watt Hammond 1650F
      40 Watt Hammond 1650H
      50 Watt Hammond 1650K
      60 Watt Hammond 1650N
      60 Watt Hammond 1650P
      100 Watt Hammond 1650R
      120 Watt Hammond 1650T
      280 Watt Hammond 1650W

Chapter 6: Toroidal Designs
Balancing the DC Idle Currents
Four Toroidal Designs
      PAT 4002 Amp
      PAT 4004 Amp
      PAT 4006 Amp
      PAT 4008 Amp
High-Performance Diff-Splitter

Chapter 7: OTL Valve Amplifiers
OTL Principles
Output Impedance of OTLs vs.
                Transformer-Coupled Amplifiers
Differential Amplifiers

Chapter 8: Hybrid Amps
Hybrid Amp Overview
      Designing the Tube Front-End
Designing the Solid-State Output
      The Mosfet Solution
      Biasing the Output Stage
Power Supply for the Hybrid Amp
      Tube Plate Supply
      Heater Supply
      Output Stage Supply

Chapter 9: Tube Amplifier Protection
Power Transformer Protection
Output Transformer Protection
      Current-Sense Resistors as Fuses
Electronic Protection
      Mosfets as Cathode Switches
      Creating a Latching Circuit Breaker
      Annunciating the Fault Condition
Other Do's and Don'ts

Appendix A: Tube Data
2A3
5AR4, GZ34
5U4GB, GZ32
5Y3GT, 5Y4GT
6BQ5, EL84
6CA7, EL34
6CG7, 6FQ7
6EU7
6L6GC, 5881
6SN7GTB
6V6GTA
12AT7, 6201, ECC81
12AX7A, 7025, ECC83

 

Appendix A cont'd
300B
811A
6080WA, 6080, 6AS7G
6550A
7027A
7199
8417
GL-211
SV811-3
SV811-10
Other Devices
      6K11, 6D10
      6N7/GT, 12N7/GT
      6SL7/GT, 12SL7/GT
      6SQ7/GT, 12SQ7/GT
      35L6/GT
      35W4
      50C5A
      7581/A
      7591/A
      6DJ7
      5687WA
      6922
      
      
Appendix B: Plitron Toroidal Transformer Data
Plitron Ultra-Wide Bandwidth Output
              Transformers      
Plitron Output Transformers

Appendix C: Hammond Transformer Information
Hammond 125 Series - Universal Output
              Transformers
Hammond 1650 Series
Hammond Potted 1650 Series
Hammond SE Series Single-Ended Output
              Designs
Hammond 1600 Series Push-Pull Output
              Designs
Hammond 263 to 282 Series Replacement Power
              Transformers
Hammond 150/190 Series Filter Chokes